This topic is far far faaaarrrr too big and broad to get into depth here without quoting the entirety of Simpson's Chapter 4, "Print Materials in Schools," p. 49-68, and that would definitely violate fair use.
Let's keep it simple. A few BASIC things to think about before you run off to the copy machine in those last 3 minutes before the bell rings:
- Good news! If you become "inspired" to use something last minute (that is, there is not enough time to request permission to use it), you can go ahead & copy it to use. You may not, however, use it the following year (semester, etc) without obtaining permission.
- It is never, never, never acceptable to copy something intended to be "consumable," even if you need to make just one more for a new student or a substitute. (Really??!! Just ONE more?!?! Yes, really.)
- Copying a print source to an audio version is equivalent to photocopying each page of the work. (See "B is for..." entry).
- Using a postermaking machine to enlarge a textbook page is covered by fair use, as long as the original photocopy is destroyed.
- Using a small number of graphics to support instruction is acceptable, but using them simply for decorative purposes is not.
- Recognizable characters (from books, cartoons, comics, etc) may not be used for murals, worksheets, etc. A page from a print source that was purchased may be displayed, however.
This is just a very brief overview, of course, but I found these to be the topics to be most relevant to a classroom teacher. If you can wait for the letter "K" we just might get into the Katsenmeier Report, which lays out more specifics.